Senin, 23 April 2012
Sabtu, 31 Maret 2012
Although some cities grew greatly in size during the renaissance period, the metropolitan city as we known to day has it roots in the industrial revolution. Up to that time the process of urbanization had effected only a small minority of the population. From the beginning of the nineteenth century , however, three major economic factor led to the growth of cities on entirely new scale. Firstly the invention of powerful new machines gave rise to factories of unprecedented size, which created an enormous demand for labour. Secondly, the large-scale construction of road, railways and canals provided cheap and regular transport which made possible the concentration of industries and population into particular area. Thirdly a revolution in agriculture led to the development of an efficient system of mixed farming, new methods of breeding and an increase in the yield of corn, all of which helped to provide the food necessary to sustain a greatly increased urban population.
The process of urban growth is still closely linked to industrial development, but the increase complexity of administration and commerce has also contributed to rapid rate of urbanization. It has been estimated that in 1800 less than 3% of the population of the world, or 27.4 million people, lived in towns of over 5000 inhabitants. By 1950 the proportion of town-dwellers had grown to nearly 30% , or over 716 million. Moreover, during the last half-century, it is the large city which has succeeded in attracting population to a much greater degree than small cities or towns.